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General Emilio Aguinaldo was born on the 22nd/23rd of March, 1869, near Cavite, Luzon.

Philippines—died February 6, 1964, Quezon City), Filipino leader and politician who fought first against Spain and later against the United States for the independence of the Philippines.

Aguinaldo was of Chinese and Tagalog parentage. He attended San Juan de Letrán College in Manila but left school early to help his mother run the family farm. In August 1896 he was mayor of Cavite Viejo (present-day Kawit; adjacent to Cavite city) and was the local leader of the Katipunan, a revolutionary society that fought bitterly and successfully against the Spanish.

In December 1897 he signed an agreement called the Pact of Biac-na-Bató with the Spanish governor general. Aguinaldo agreed to leave the Philippines and to remain permanently in exile on condition of a substantial financial reward from Spain coupled with the promise of liberal reforms. While first in Hong Kong and then in Singapore, he made arrangements with representatives of the American consulates and of Commodore George Dewey to return to the Philippines to assist the United States in the war against Spain.

Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines on May 19, 1898, and announced renewal of the struggle with Spain. The Filipinos, who declared their independence from Spain on June 12, 1898, proclaimed a provisional republic, of which Aguinaldo was to become president, and in September a revolutionary assembly met and ratified Filipino independence. However, the Philippines, along with Puerto Rico and Guam, were ceded by Spain to the United States by the Treaty of Paris, which was signed on December 10, 1898.

Relations between the Americans and the Filipinos were unfriendly and grew steadily worse. On January 23, 1899, the Malolos Constitution—by virtue of which the Philippines was declared a republic and which had been approved by the assembly and by Aguinaldo—was proclaimed. Aguinaldo, who had been president of the provisional government, was elected president.

On the night of February 4, 1899, the inevitable conflict between the Americans and Filipinos surrounding Manila was precipitated. By the morning of February 5 the Filipinos, who had fought bravely, had been defeated at all points. While the fighting was in progress, Aguinaldo issued a proclamation of war against the United States, which immediately sent reinforcements to the Philippines. The Filipino government fled northward.

In November 1899 Aguinaldo heading to Pinagrealan Caves in Bulacan where he remained on and off with his wounded soldiers. In February 1901, Aguinaldo was alerted that the US forces were looking for him at the caves. He fled from Pinagrealan Cave and headed towards a secret location in Palanan, Northern Luzon, where he was later captured by Gen. Frederick Funston of the United States Forces.

In 1950 Aguinaldo was appointed by Pres. Elpidio Quirino as a member of the Council of State. In his later years he devoted much attention to veterans’ affairs, the promotion of nationalism and democracy in the Philippines, and the improvement of relations between the Philippines and the United States.

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We cannot allow rich and powerful people to destroy the environment for their own benefit.

Our history is too important!

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Filipino people must come first, before money, politics, and power!

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